In its natural form, copper ions are an essential micronutrient and required by all higher organisms for healthy metabolism and enzyme function. In human skin, copper is a natural, integral part of collagen and elastin, two components that allow for firming of skin and reduction of wrinkles.

Oxygen is an effective sanitizer has many proven therapeutic benefits. Oxygen is used in a variety of treatments including skin disorders such as eczema and psoriasis, asthma, emphysema, lung disease and several cancer treatments.

Scientific Research


Please click on the links below for relevant articles and scientific research?

Benefits of Oxygen
Oxygen is an effective sanitizer has many proven therapeutic benefits. Oxygen is used in a variety of treatments including skin disorders such as eczema and psoriasis, asthma, emphysema, lung disease and several cancer treatments.

Oxygen is a general body detoxifier and known to slow down the aging process, stimulate the immune system, promote cleaner, softer and rejuvenated skin.

How oxgyen kills pathogens
Oxygen and the human body


Benefits of Copper
In its natural form, copper ions are an essential micronutrient and required by all higher organisms for healthy metabolism and enzyme function. In human skin, copper is a natural, integral part of collagen and elastin, two components that allow for firming of skin and reduction of wrinkles.

Copper cannot enter the body through the skin. This ensures that copper remains safe to humans. Healthy humans regulate copper levels “automatically” as a larger fraction of copper is absorbed if the supply is low and a smaller fraction if copper supply is high. Copper-related conditions in humans are rare and according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) humans are at far greater risk of copper deficiency than copper excess – we all need copper in our diet!

Copper is essential for healthy skin, hair, bones and metabolism. Copper ions strengthen, repair and protect arteries, veins, nerve fibres and the immune system and prevents arthritis.

Copper Kills 97% of Hospital ICU Bacteria!
Essential Micronutrient

Essential Mineral
Copper in Human Health


Antimicrobial Properties of Copper
Copper has been used as a natural biocide for over 11,000 years and is the most effective, natural bactericide, fungicide and algaecide known to mankind.

It is believed that copper has the ability to kill harmful bacteria through a multi-faceted approach. The thought is that contact of the bacterium with the surface damages the cell membrane, or outer envelope of the cell by several mechanisms. This makes the bacterium “leaky” as it loses water and with it, many soluble essential nutrients and salts. Further to this, copper ions released from the surface can enter the cell uninhibitedly.

The multi-target effect of copper makes resistance extremely unlikely as copper kills bacteria very quickly and leaves almost no survivors.

Copper Kills 97% of Hospital ICU Bacteria!
Antimicrobial Copper

Antimicrobial Copper CDA Publication 2010
EPA Approval of Antimicrobial Copper
Wikipedia Info on Copper


Chlorine, DBPs, Cancer and RWIs

In 1974, Rook showed that chlorination of water containing natural organic material results in production of some volatile halogenated organic compounds, such as chloroform. Since then, many other chlorination by-products such as trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, chlorophenols, chloral hydrate, and haloacetonitriles have been found. Generally, the trihalomethanes are the most prevalent in chlorinated water. These chlorine by-products trigger the production of free radicals in the body, causing cell damage, and are highly carcinogenic. "Although concentrations of these carcinogens (THMs) are low, it is precisely these low levels that cancer scientists believe are responsible for the majority of human cancers in the United States." The Environmental Defence Fund

Chlorine Bathwater linked to Cancer
Science review of DBPs in Drinking Water
Evaluation of Carinogenic Potential of DBPs in Drinking Water
Chlorinated By-products and Cancer
Organochlorine Compounds and Breast Cancer
Chlorine DBPs and Bladder Cancer
Chemical Properties of Chlorine and Health
Toxicity, Chlorine Gas (Review, 2010)
DBPs from Drinking Water Chlorination
Review of DBPs in Drinking Water
Chlorine DBPs and Bladder Cancer
Uptake of DBPs via showering, swimming and drinking water
Cancer on Tap: The Risk of Chlorinated
Chloroform and Cancer
Recreational Water Illnesses (RWIs)


Chlorine and Birth Defects

Concern for exposures to drinking water contaminants and their effects on adverse birth outcomes has prompted several studies evaluating chlorination disinfection by-products and chlorinated solvents. Some of these contaminants are found to be teratogenic in animal studies.

Chlorine tap water nearly Doubles the Risk of Birth Defects
Scientific Research on Chlorinated Tap Water and Birth Defects
Study on Chlorination and Birth Defects in Norway
DBPs and Increased Birth Defects
Water DBPs and Birth Defects
Daily Telegraph Science Report on DBPs and Increased Birth Defects


Chlorine and Salt Chlorinated Swimming Pools: DBPs, Cancer, Allergies and Asthma

Most pools rely on chlorine--or its close cousin bromine--to provide strong disinfection. Chlorine is good for killing algae and mold as well as many waterborne bacteria that carry diseases. But the powerful oxidizing chemical reacts with organic matter--leaves and dirt that land in outdoor pools, as well as the
sweat, oils, lotions, saliva, and urine that people introduce--to form dozens of so-called disinfection byproducts, or DBPs, which can be toxic and can't be biologically degraded in the water.

Some of which, like trihalomethanes, have been linked to cancer, miscarriages, reproductive problems, and other diseases.
But no regulations exist to test for and restrict these chemicals from swimming pool water. Researchers have found that swimming in chlorinated pools increases the risks of bladder cancer. In Barcelona, Spain, scientists have found that some DBPs are more carcinogenic when absorbed through
the skin or lungs because--unlike ingested chlorinated water--they aren't detoxified by the liver.

In a new study published in the Sept 2010 issue of Environmental Health Perspectives, researchers in Spain collected blood, urine, and exhaled air samples from 49 non-smoking adult volunteers before and after they swam for 40 min in an indoor chlorinated pool. They found that, after swimming, total concentration of the four THMs in exhaled breath was seven times higher than before swimming. Concentrations of genotoxicity biomarkers (indicators of mutagenicity) for permanent mutation of DNA were also increased in relation to increased THM levels supporting the potential genotoxic effects of exposure to disinfection byproducts from swimming pools.

The researchers also examined the effect of THMs from chlorine and salt chlorinated swimming pools. Interestingly, the greatest increase in biomarkers for genotoxicity was observed from exposure to the THM, Bromoform, which is the predominant THM formed in salt chlorinated swimming pools.

During the last few years, more medical studies have linked DBP chemicals to asthma and respiratory problems. Infants could be particularly sensitive to trichloramine--the gas that gives indoor swimming pools their
characteristic smell--because their lungs are still developing. Researchers from Catholic University of Louvain in Brussels, Belgium, found that young children who swam regularly were more predisposed than others to developing asthma and recurrent bronchitis in later life.They recommend that parents avoid taking infants to swimming pools with chlorine in the water and the air, supporting the so-called "pool chlorine
hypothesis" that exposure to chlorine in childhood may be partly responsible for the rise in asthma in industrialized countries.

Genotoxic effect of DBPs in Swimmers (2010)
DBPs in Chlorine and Salt Water Chlorinated Swimming Pools
Infant swimming in chlorinated pools and the risks of bronchiolitis, asthma and allergy
Baby Pools May Increase Asthma Danger
Pediatrics, Chlorine and Asthma
Chloroform High in Swimming Pools
Bad Water, Bad Air at Swimming Pools
Respiratory Illness at Indoor Pool
Risk of Asthma from Chlorinated Swimming Pools
Asthma and Swimming
Airways Dysfunction after Exposure to Bromine
Health effects of Swimming Pool Disinfection
Chlorine, Swimming Pools, and Breathing Problems In Swimmers
Bromoform and Salt Water Swimming Pools
Why non-Chlorine Pools?


Environmental Impact of Salt Water Swimming Pools

On November 9, 2005, an ordinance was enacted in the Santa Clarita Valley, Los Angeles) making it illegal for swimming pools connected to the sewer system to be converted to saltwater pools. The ordinance also made it illegal for both new and existing saltwater pools to be connected to the sewer system. The ordinance aims to reduce the amount of chloride going into the Santa Clara River.

Salinity is the build-up of salt in soil and water. The worst-affected regions are in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Eighty wetlands already suffer from salinity. It is predicted that 130 wetlands will be affected by 2050. Salinity puts animal and plant species and will eventually reduce biodiversity in the affected regions.

Drinking water supplies, particularly in South Australia and New South Wales, are also under threat from salinity. Salinity increases the cost of treating water for drinking, reduces the availability of water for irrigation, and renders farmland useless, costing the economy millions each year.

The Federal Government launched the $1.4 billion National Action Plan on Salinity and Water Quality. The plan takes a regional approach and is backed up by advances in salinity mapping and cropping systems. There are also strategies in place to deal with salinity in individual river systems and catchments. However, it will take years for improvements in water quality to be measured.

Banning of Salt Chlorinated Swimming Pool (USA) Ordinance


The e-Clear technology is effective against E.coli, Coliforms, Enterococci, Pseudomonas, Giardia, viruses, algae and chlorine resistant organisms such as Legionella and Cryptosporidium.

How it works The benefits How we compare
e-Clear specializes in chemical free water sanitation. We have over 20 years experience in water sanitation for commercial and domestic swimming pools as well as water purification for commercial clients and whole households. e-Clear continuously invest in research and development to provide innovative solutions to purify and sanitize water without the need for harmful chemicals. e-Clear oxygen water sanitation systems are manufactured in South Africa, Cape Town. An international patent for the 100% chlorine free freshwater oxygen technology was obtained in 2003 and launched internationally with huge success.
The e-clear Oxygenation provides 4 levels of water sanitation, making it the most advanced non-toxic sanitation technology currently available for swimming pools and drinking water. more... With Oxygen enriched mineral water for your swimming pool rather than harmful chemicals or salt chlorination, the benefits are obvious. Healthy, Eco-friendly, Water-wise, Hassle free, Cost-effective, more... To see how the patented e-clear oxygenation technology differs from chlorine, bromine, salt chlorinators, ozone, ultraviolet (UV) and Ionization systems, click here for more...
     
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